Conference Download Day 1


Building Blocks for Electric Power Testing

Conference Downloads

Download conference presentation and view recording for each session by clicking the links below each headline. To view the presentation abstracts and presenter bios please expand and collapse the green bar.

Joe Vorih, CEO, Hottinger Brüel & Kjær
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Peter Allum – Director of Electric Power Test, Hottinger Brüel & Kjær
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Neither testing electric power nor testing electric motors is new. Engineers have been evaluating electric power and motors for almost 200 years. However, for many engineers and testing professionals that do not have an electrical background, motors and inverters are new and have created challenges. HBK has a breadth of knowledge in electrification ranging from pure electric power measurement to the influence on noise and vibration, as well as end of line testing and software. This presentation will review challenges in different areas and present how HBK can help you solve your electric power testing issues.

Author bio:
For the 30 years Peter has worked in the fields of engineering and technology covering automotive, aerospace, defence and the power utilities. Peter has been a leader since the mid-90’s with roles in test engineering, product management, applications, sales and marketing.

Peter currently resides in the UK near Oxford, managing a cross functional team in HBK’s Electric Power Test growth initiative with team members based around Europe, the USA and North Asia.

Peter was educated in the UK & Singapore, completing his engineering qualifications through vocational education and undertaking his masters through the Engineering Council in the UK. Peter has worked with HBK for over 10 years. In his spare time Peter is a keen sailor, sailing instructor and enjoys the study of military history.

James Clark, Lead Project Engineer, Stanley Black and Decker
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Using the data acquisition and analysis capabilities of HBK’s eDrive system, an in-line tester was designed and built to test and verify IPM brushless rotors for an automated rotor cell.  Using design input guidelines from HBK, a standard wound stator was developed that is capable of testing multiple stack length rotors without hardware change overs. Standard HBK imbedded software was used to assess the BEMF waveform response as well as measure hall sensor angles with respect to the BEMF zero crossing point. This single-station in-line tester screens parts on a 100% basis at a cycle time consistent with high-volume automated production. Sensitivity was validated by testing known bad samples based on the rotor PFMEA.

Do you have a question for the presenter? The presenter will be available to answer questions at the Guest Speaker booth in the Virtual Exhibition Hall for approx. 1 hour after the presentation has ended.

Author Bio:
James is currently the Lead Project Engineer for Motors Development & Electrical Systems at Stanley Black and Decker. He has been with Stanley Black and Decker since 2011. Prior to his time with Stanley Black and Decker he was with Kollmorgen for 10 years.

Klaus Lang – Business Development Manager eDrive, Hottinger Brüel & Kjær
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Selecting the proper sensor and using it correctly with respect to adaption to the Device under Test (DuT) as well as to the connected power analyzer/DAQ is a challenge. This presentation will cover the basics of current, high voltage and torque/speed sensors and give some insights to the proper setup of connected DAQ systems. Finally, the presentation will provide a very brief introduction on how Measurement Uncertainty (MU) depends on individual sensor selection.

Author Bio:
Klaus Lang, Dipl.-Ing., born in 1960, studied Telecommunications at the
University of the German Telekom in Dieburg. After graduation he joined GOULD INSTRUMENTS as a Product Specialist for paper recorders, later digital data recorders. After the acquisition of GOULD by NICOLET TECHNOLOGIES he took over Product Management responsibilities for the NICOLET transient recorders, and later also for digital storage oscilloscopes. After NICOLET becoming part of the LDS family, he was responsible within LDS for the Product Marketing of NICOLET DAQ Systems, DACTRON Dynamic Signal Analyzers and LDS electromagnetic shakers. Since HBM acquired LDS in 2009, he is responsible within HBM (now HBK) as Business Development Manager for “eDrive testing” (= test systems for inverter controlled electrical motors).

Mitch Marks , Business Development – Electric Power Test, HBK
Ed Green , Principal Staff Engineer – Sound and Vibration Engineering Services
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In the session, HBK experts will present on measuring torque ripple and its effects on electric power and noise and vibration. The presentation will begin with Mitch Marks providing a brief introduction to torque ripple and cogging torque in electric machines. He will then discuss the impact of torque ripple on electric power. Lastly, Ed Green will present the implications of noise as a driver would perceive it in-vehicle.

René Bastiaanssen, Business Development Manager, Hottinger Brüel & Kjær
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With the world becoming more electric every day, many engineers can be overwhelmed by a new vocabulary and new sets of variables and equations for electric power. This session is an introduction to electrical parameters and their measurement. Electrical power is a difficult measurement to make, and the methods for measuring it are not always clear. We will discuss topics like cycle-based power calculations for both electrical and mechanical quantities, averaging methods, dynamic power and fundamental power.

Author Bio:
Rene has a demonstrated history in test & measurement instrumentation, sales, and engineering with an educational background in electronics and management. Rene has been with HBK since 2009 fulfilling various positions ranging from sales to power and transient team lead. He is currently a business development manager in the electric power testing team.

Michael Czubaj & Dustin Harrison, Millbrook Revolutionary Engineering
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Dynamometers have been a staple of rotating machinery testing for many years. While many test stands exist for gearboxes, axles and engines, the push towards electrification in all of these areas has brought new requirements to dynamometer test stands. Millbrook Revolutionary Engineering has been providing testing solutions for these applications since 2001 and will provide insight into how they approach test stand development and measurement. In this presentation, we will discuss the new challenges in electrifications such as high speed, difficulties in mechanical installation, new sensors, and additional measurement needs.

Do you have a question for the presenter? The presenter will be available to answer questions at the Guest Speaker booth in the Virtual Exhibition Hall for approx. 1 hour after the presentation has ended.

Mitch Marks, Bus. Dev. Manager – Electrification, Hottinger Brüel & Kjær
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The battery life of devices, from tools to vehicles, is a crucial topic for the adoption of more electric devices. One of the main drivers for improving battery life is minimizing losses in the power conversion. Power losses can have many sources, and it is often difficult to determine the exact source you need to identify. In this session, we will review the basic sources of losses in electric machines and how to measure them, including copper, mechanical and iron losses.

Author Bio:
Mitch has worked in electric motor developing and testing his entire career and specializes in test and measurement traction motors and drives. He has been with HBK since 2017 as a member of the electric power testing team. He has an undergraduate and a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin – Madison WEMPEC program.

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Electromagnetic noise and vibration in emotors can be significant. Called eNVH in automotive applications, this phenomenon is generated by magnetic forces related to airgap magnetic field variations inside the electrical machines. Unfortunately, there is no way to measure local magnetic forces occurring inside laminations or at the iron/air interface, or local flux distribution inside laminations. Besides, faults and tolerances have a high impact on eNVH behaviour by modifying magnetic force distribution and frequencies. Testing must therefore capture eNVH phenomena through electrical quantities such as phase currents, search coil-induced voltage, or back EMF.
This presentation discusses the links between electrical quantities and flux harmonics responsible for magnetic noise, illustrating them by using numerical simulation under MANATEE software. eNVH test methodologies based on electrical quantities are reviewed, focusing on PM synchronous motor topologies.

Do you have a question for the presenter? The presenter will be available to answer questions at the Guest Speaker booth in the Virtual Exhibition Hall for approx. 1 hour after the presentation has ended.

Author Bio:
Jean Le Besnerais is the CTO and CEO of EOMYS ENGINEERING, specializing in the analysis and reduction of acoustic noise and vibration in electric motors.

Following a M.Sc. specializing in Applied Mathematics (École Centrale Paris, France) in 2005, he wrote an industrial PhD thesis in Electrical Engineering at the L2EP laboratory of the École Centrale de Lille, in the north of France, on the reduction of electromagnetic noise and vibration in traction induction machines with ALSTOM Transport. He worked from 2008 to 2013 as an R&D engineer in the railway and wind industries (ALSTOM, SIEMENS Wind Power, NENUPHAR Wind) on some multiphysics designs and optimization tasks at system level. In 2013, he founded EOMYS ENGINEERING, a company providing applied research and development services including modelling and simulation, scientific software development and experimental measurements.

EOMYS has developed a strong expertise in the analysis and reduction of electromagnetically induced acoustic noise and vibration in electrical systems (analysis of more than 100 electrical machines with NVH issues). This experience includes synchronous and induction machines from W to MW range, from 10 to 150,000 rpm, with inner or outer rotor.

Rabah Hadjit, Principal Staff Engineer, Hottinger Brüel & Kjær
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Meeting the sound quality requirements for an electric vehicle poses different challenges compared to vehicles with internal combustion engines. The noise signature of an EV powertrain is totally different as the electric motor, the power control and the gearbox generate tonal noise, the tones correspond to higher harmonics of the rotational speed and can then be perceived as more annoying.

We will present the process we developed to perform interactive evaluations of an EV virtual prototype using the VI-GRADE NVH Simulator. We will describe how we used CAE simulation data to characterize the EV powertrain noise sources, including the electromagnetic torque ripple and radial forces as well as the gear whine.

The source terms have been combined with transfer functions measured on a surrogate vehicle to estimate the powertrain sound at the driver ears. We will then demonstrate how we use the virtual prototype for interactive sound quality evaluation even before having access to a physical prototype. The results demonstrate the important contribution of the EM torque ripple to the EV powertrain noise.

Author Bio:
Rabah started his career in the Theoretical Mechanics, Dynamics and Vibrations Lab of the University of Mons where he initially performed research on multibody simulations, NVH testing and structural dynamics. Focusing on inverse methods for force identification, he earned his PhD in 2001 from the same University. Since then Rabah has helped customers improve thier product performance and product development to better account for NVH and dynamics. He specializes in CAE tools, including finite-element, multibody and acoustic simulation and has developed patented CAE methods and processes for the optimization of the NVH performance of mechanical systems. As a Principal Staff Engineer in the Brüel Kjær Global Engineering Services team since 2016, Rabah is focused on leveraging his CAE and test expertise to expand the team’s capability to deliver a complete test and CAE solution with both internal resources and a variety of partnerships with CAE services vendors.

James Swanke, PhD in electrical engineering, Uni. of Wisconsin-Madison
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The development of power-dense electrical machines and drives is critical to the feasibility of electrically propelled aircraft. The NASA University Lead Initiative (ULI) is providing us the opportunity to explore these challenges by carrying out the design, fabrication, and testing of a high-speed megawatt-scale integrated motor drive. Focusing on the machine development, a concentrated-winding 12-pole surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machine was selected after being judged to provide the best combination of performance, power density and manufacturability. This machine utilizes high-strength samarium-cobalt magnets, cobalt-iron laminations, rectangular Litz wire and a segmented stator tooth structure that offers manufacturability advantages. The machine stator is broken into six three-phase modules that makes it compatible with excitation using multiple inverters.

A 200 kW technical risk reduction machine has been built and tested at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to validate key mechanical and electromagnetic performance features that are critical to the final 1 MW machine design. This risk reduction machine shares several features with the final 1 MW machine design, including choice of materials and physical dimensions. However, the 200 kW machine requires less aggressive stator cooling which is accomplished using a liquid cooling jacket. The machine windings are excited by two three-phase silicon-carbide inverters, each exciting half of the stator machine windings, providing valuable insights into its operational characteristics using multi-inverter excitation.

The 200 kW machine is heavily instrumented (including, accelerometers, thermocouples, current sensors, etc.) to thoroughly assess its mechanical, thermal, and electrical performance characteristics that will influence the final 1 MW machine design. The HBM Gen7tA data acquisition system and QuantumX modules served as the primary means of collecting measurement data during the 200 kW machine test. The use of this equipment and associated software were essential for monitoring, capturing and interpreting the substantial data produced by the test setup instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the testing of the 200 kW risk reduction machine and the associated HBM test configuration, including both hardware and software.

Do you have a question for the presenter? The presenter will be available to answer questions at the Guest Speaker booth in the Virtual Exhibition Hall for approx. 1 hour after the presentation has ended.

Author Bio:
James Swanke received his BS in EE from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2014. After, James worked for Siemens where he developed a strong interest in electrical machines. In 2017, he returned to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to pursue graduate studies related to electrical machines and power. He completed his MS degree in 2019 and is currently pursuing a PhD in electrical engineering. James’ research interests include electrical machine design for aerospace applications.

Dr Andrew Halfpenny, Director of Technology, nCode Products
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The theoretical and real-world range of an electric vehicle may differ significantly. To maximize the range and overall efficiency of the vehicle, it is necessary to understand and characterize how the vehicle is used and determine through meticulous measurement and analysis where efficiency losses occur.

Quantifying AC power is particularly difficult. Unlike the conventual electricity grid, electric vehicles convert DC to AC using an electrical inverter. Using pulse-width modulation, these produce a frequency-modulated, non-sinusoidal, transient waveform.

This presentation will introduce the concept of AC power analysis post-processing. Starting with steady-state sinusoidal waveforms, the presentation will explain the basic concepts of active, reactive and apparent power, and the power factor. The presentation will then examine the effect of non-sinusoidal and transient waveforms. Digital signal processing (DSP) techniques will be introduced that take advantage of high-speed digitized data captured using the HBM eDrive system. The presentation will cover the following methods of AC power analysis:

– Windowed-statistical method
– Clarke transform method
– Hilbert transform method

A case study will be presented showing the advantages of each method based on real data from an electric vehicle.

Author Bio:
Andrew heads technology and innovation for the nCode product brand. He has introduced many new technologies for automotive vehicle usage monitoring, proving ground correlation, accelerated laboratory testing and mathematical simulation. He has worked in consultancy with ‘blue chip’ customers across the UK, Europe, Americas and the Far East, and has written publications on fatigue, digital signal processing and structural health monitoring. He is a founding member of NAFEMS, the International Association for the Engineering Modelling, Analysis and Simulation Community, and is a visiting lecturer on structural dynamics with The University of Sheffield.

Ed Green, Principal Staff Engineer, HBK Sound and Vibration Engineering Service
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With the transition from internal combustion to electric motor propulsion, it is imperative that noise and vibration engineers need to learn the basics of electric motor technology and terminology. This is not a trivial task.

In this presentation, we will provide an understanding of the basic physics, technology, and terminology used in modern electric vehicles (explained at a high level):

– Physics of electric machines
– Difference between induction motors, synchronous motors, and switched reluctance motors
– Control circuitry and algorithms used to power electric motors
– Trade-offs of different types of traction motors and their impacts on noise and vibration
– Value of measuring current, voltage, and torque ripple along microphone and accelerometer measurements

Author bio:
Ed Green has been a noise engineer in the Detroit area for the last 26 years. For the last nine years, Ed has been a principal staff engineer at Brüel & Kjær Sound and Vibration Engineering Services. Ed holds a Ph.D. from Purdue University. Ed’s PhD thesis focused on “smart” foams for Active Noise Control, and his Masters thesis was on the subject of foam modeling. Ed is responsible for Quality, and he leads all R&D efforts for the consulting group at SVES. He also heads up the group’s eDrive mission to expand SVES’s impact on electric machine noise.